The Romans helped to spread the habit to most of Europe and North Africa. Kissing the hand or cheek was called an osculum. Kissing on the lips with mouth closed was called a basium , which was used between relatives. A kiss of passion was called a suavium. Kissing was not always an indication of eros , or love, but also could show respect and rank as it was used in Medieval Europe.
The study of kissing started sometime in the nineteenth century and is called philematology , which has been studied by people including Cesare Lombroso, Ernest Crawley , Charles Darwin , Edward Burnett Tylor and modern scholars such as Elaine Hatfield. Kristoffer Nyrop identified a number of types of kisses, including kisses of love, affection, peace, respect, and friendship.
He notes, however, that the categories are somewhat contrived and overlapping, and some cultures have more kinds, including the French with twenty and the Germans with thirty. Kissing another person's lips has become a common expression of affection or warm greeting in many cultures worldwide. Yet in certain cultures, kissing was introduced only through European settlement, before which it was not a routine occurrence.
Such cultures include certain indigenous peoples of Australia, the Tahitians, and many tribes in Africa. A kiss can also be used to express feelings without an erotic element but can be nonetheless "far deeper and more lasting", writes Nyrop. He adds that such kisses can be expressive of love "in the widest and most comprehensive meaning of the word, bringing a message of loyal affection, gratitude, compassion, sympathy, intense joy, and profound sorrow.
Nyrop writes that the most common example is the "intense feeling which knits parents to their offspring", but he adds that kisses of affection are not only common between parents and children, but also between other members of the same family, which can include those outside the immediate family circle, "everywhere where deep affection unites people. The family kiss was traditional with the Romans and kisses of affection are often mentioned by the early Greeks , as when Odysseus , on reaching his home, meets his faithful shepherds.
Affection can be a cause of kissing "in all ages in grave and solemn moments," notes Nyrop, "not only among those who love each other, but also as an expression of profound gratitude. When the Apostle Paul took leave of the elders of the congregation at Ephesus , "they all wept sore, and fell on Paul's neck and kissed him" Acts Kisses can also be exchanged between total strangers, as when there is a profound sympathy with or the warmest interest in another person.
Folk poetry has been the source of affectionate kisses where they sometimes played an important part, as when they had the power to cast off spells or to break bonds of witchcraft and sorcery, often restoring a man to his original shape. Nyrop notes the poetical stories of the "redeeming power of the kiss are to be found in the literature of many countries, especially, for example, in the Old French Arthurian romances Lancelot, Guiglain, Tirant le blanc in which the princess is changed by evil arts into a dreadful dragon, and can only resume her human shape in the case of a knight being brave enough to kiss her.
A kiss of affection can also take place after death. In Genesis , it is written that when Jacob was dead, "Joseph fell upon his father's face and wept upon him and kissed him. Nyrop writes that "the kiss is the last tender proof of love bestowed on one we have loved, and was believed, in ancient times, to follow mankind to the nether world. Kissing on the lips can be a physical expression of affection or love between two people in which the sensations of touch, taste, and smell are involved. The kiss on the lips can be performed between two friends or family.
This move aims to express affection for a friend. Unlike kissing for love , a friendly kiss has no sexual connotation. The kiss on the lips is a practice that can be found in the time of Patriarchs Bible.
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In many cultures, it is considered a harmless custom for teenagers to kiss on a date or to engage in kissing games with friends. These games serve as icebreakers at parties and may be some participants' first exposure to sexuality. There are many such games, including Truth or Dare? The psychologist William Cane notes that kissing in Western society is often a romantic act and describes a few of its attributes:. It's not hard to tell when two people are in love.
Maybe they're trying to hide it from the world, still they cannot conceal their inner excitement. Men will give themselves away by a certain excited trembling in the muscles of the lower jaw upon seeing their beloved. Women will often turn pale immediately of seeing their lover and then get slightly red in the face as their sweetheart draws near. This is the effect of physical closeness upon two people who are in love.
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Romantic kissing in Western cultures is a fairly recent development and is rarely mentioned even in ancient Greek literature. In the Middle Ages it became a social gesture and was considered a sign of refinement of the upper classes. In China , for example, a similar expression of affection consists of rubbing one's nose against the cheek of another person. In other Eastern cultures kissing is not common. In South East Asian countries the "sniff kiss" is the most common form of affection and Western mouth to mouth kissing is often reserved for sexual foreplay.
In some tribal cultures the "equivalent for our 'kiss me' is 'smell me. The kiss can be an important expression of love and erotic emotions. In his book The Kiss and its History , Kristoffer Nyrop describes the kiss of love as an "exultant message of the longing of love, love eternally young, the burning prayer of hot desire, which is born on the lovers' lips, and 'rises,' as Charles Fuster has said, 'up to the blue sky from the green plains,' like a tender, trembling thank-offering.
The power of a kiss is not minimized when he writes that "we all yearn for kisses and we all seek them; it is idle to struggle against this passion. No one can evade the omnipotence of the kiss Runeberg says that the angels rejoice over the first kiss exchanged by lovers," and can keep one feeling young: "It carries life with it; it even bestows the gift of eternal youth.
As a result, kissing as an expression of love is contained in much of literature, old and new. Nyrop gives a vivid example in the classic love story of Daphnis and Chloe. As a reward "Chloe has bestowed a kiss on Daphnis—an innocent young-maid's kiss, but it has on him the effect of an electrical shock":  : Ye gods, what are my feelings. Her lips are softer than the rose's leaf, her mouth is sweet as honey, and her kiss inflicts on me more pain than a bee's sting. I have often kissed my kids, I have often kissed my lambs, but never have I known aught like this. My pulse is beating fast, my heart throbs, it is as if I were about to suffocate, yet, nevertheless, I want to have another kiss.
Strange, never-suspected pain! Has Chloe, I wonder, drunk some poisonous draught ere she kissed me? How comes it that she herself has not died of it? Romantic kissing "requires more than simple proximity," notes Cane. It also needs "some degree of intimacy or privacy, Throughout history, a kiss has been a ritual, formal, symbolic or social gesture indicating devotion, respect or greeting. It appears as a ritual or symbol of religious devotion. For example, in the case of kissing a temple floor, or a religious book or icon. Besides devotion, a kiss has also indicated subordination or, nowadays, respect.
In modern times the practice continues, as in the case of a bride and groom kissing at the conclusion of a wedding ceremony or national leaders kissing each other in greeting, and in many other situations. A kiss in a religious context is common. In earlier periods of Christianity or Islam kissing became a ritual gesture, and is still treated as such in certain customs, as when "kissing In the early Church the baptized were kissed by the celebrant after the ceremony, and its use was even extended as a salute to saints and religious heroes, with Crawley adding, "Thus Joseph kissed Jacob, and his disciples kissed Paul.
Joseph kissed his dead father, and the custom was retained in our civilization", as the farewell kiss on dead relatives, although certain sects prohibit this today. A distinctive element in the Christian liturgy was noted by Justin in the 2nd century, now referred to as the " kiss of peace ," and once part of the rite in the primitive Mass. Conybeare has stated that this act originated within the ancient Hebrew synagogue , and Philo , the ancient Jewish philosopher called it a "kiss of harmony", where, as Crawley explains, "the Word of God brings hostile things together in concord and the kiss of love.
Nyrop notes that the kiss of peace was used as an expression of deep, spiritual devotion in the early Christian Church. Christ said, for instance, "Peace be with you, my peace I give you," and the members of Christ's Church gave each other peace symbolically through a kiss.
Holdings: The soul that kissed the body :
St Paul repeatedly speaks of the "holy kiss," and, in his Epistle to the Romans, writes: "Salute one another with an holy kiss" and his first Epistle to the Thessalonians 1 Thessalonians , he says: "Greet all the brethren with an holy kiss. The kiss of peace was also used in secular festivities. During the Middle Ages , for example, Nyrop points out that it was the custom to "seal the reconciliation and pacification of enemies by a kiss.
The holy kiss was also found in the ritual of the Church on solemn occasions, such as baptism, marriage, confession, ordination, or obsequies. However, toward the end of the Middle Ages the kiss of peace disappears as the official token of reconciliation. The kiss of respect is of ancient origin, notes Nyrop. He writes that "from the remotest times we find it applied to all that is holy, noble, and worshipful—to the gods, their statues, temples, and altars, as well as to kings and emperors; out of reverence, people even kissed the ground, and both sun and moon were greeted with kisses.
He notes some examples, as "when the prophet Hosea laments over the idolatry of the children of Israel , he says that they make molten images of calves and kiss them" Hosea In classical times similar homage was often paid to the gods, and people were known to kiss the hands, knees, feet, and the mouths, of their idols. Cicero writes that the lips and beard of the famous statue of Hercules at Agrigentum were worn away by the kisses of devotees.
People kissed the cross with the image of Jesus, and such kissing of the cross is always considered a holy act. In many countries it is required, on taking an oath, as the highest assertion that the witness would be speaking the truth. I really loved the character of Brennan. He finds himself thrust into a world that he could have never imagined a few days earlier, and yet he approaches the weirdness around him with courage and good humor.
He does not back down in the face of the powers that face him in this world, and he obviously has tremendous love for his Emmie that will guide his every decision while moving through the world of immortals. I thought that the portrayal of his love was sweet and touching in many ways. The two of them make a great couple, if only their interaction with one another wasn't going to cause such a huge calamity.
This book differs from the Bloodstone Saga books in some significant ways. When reading the Bloodstone books I felt as if I was unwrapping a mystery with Harmonia as she tried to discover exactly who she was and recover her identity from those who stole it from her. In this series I feel as if Empusa still has to create her future. She and Brennan have eternity to work toward, if only they can unravel the knots of their present.
Empusa is a wonderful narrator to this story. She has the right mix of strength and vulnerability to make her a character who I can relate to. I think that I enjoyed this book even more than the books in the Bloodstone Saga. It had a driving plot that kept me turning pages through the night to see what would happen to Em and Brennan. This is not the end of their story. They still have many obstacles to overcome before they can have the eternal destiny with one another that they desire.
I enjoyed their love story. I loved the interaction with characters from ancient mythology, bringing ancient legends to life in a very relatable way. This is a book that I will read again and again. A very enjoyable beginning to a new series! Jan 02, Emma BelleBooks rated it it was amazing. First of all, just look at that cover! How gorgeous is that?! I am in love with this cover!! The Moonstone Saga is a spin-off series from her Bloodstone Saga, so if you haven't read those books I suggest you do first before picking up Soul Kissed.
You can probably read this one without having previously read the Bloodstone Saga books, but it would make things a lot easier if you have read them fi First of all, just look at that cover! You can probably read this one without having previously read the Bloodstone Saga books, but it would make things a lot easier if you have read them first.
You'll understand the characters and the terminology used a bit better. Having being in a severe state of shock and grief over one of my favourite series's from coming to end, I was excited to hear there was going to be a spin-off series. Only this time around the series focused on Empusa, the daughter of Hecate, goddess of witchcraft. We only get to see a small glimpse of Empusa and Hecate in the Bloodstone saga and I always wanted to know more about them both and a bit more about their background story.
Soul Kissed did not disappoint on either. The story centres on Empusa as she is on the run and hiding from her father who wants to kill her readers of the Bloodstone Saga will know why. Empusa is cursed to drink mortal blood to survive, the only way she feels she can do this is by taking the lives of those who are about to die anyway. A frequent visitor to hospitals, one day there she comes across Brennan who captures her attention immediately.
But Brennan is not what he appears to be, he has a hidden secret, a secret that is unknown even to himself. Someone new to Courtney's writing may be shocked at the sheer amount of mythology, history and research that goes into her books. It is something I have said time and time again about her Bloodstone Saga, and I can see myself saying again in the future about the Moonstone saga. I am a huge fan of mythology and I love the way Courtney manages to take history and mythology and blend it together, adding her own touch of flavour to it to bring together the perfect plot.
After seeing so much of the Underworld and Spirit Lands in the Bloodstone saga, I honestly did not know what to expect location wise with this book, how much more could there really be to see? I was completely wrong on this part, Soul Kissed transports readers the underwater realm of Poseidon and the sunken city of Atlantis. It was beautifully described, right down to every last detail, making the reader feel as if they are part of the book themselves.
As with the rest of Courtney's book this one is not without it's own twists and turns, this book kept me on the edge of my seat the entire way through it. I literally could not believe what was happening to poor Empusa half of the time. I just wanted to grab her out of the pages and take her home with me to keep her safe! As for the romance element, I loved it! Yes it did seem to be a little two quick and almost love at first sight with Empusa and Brennan, but with the world Courtney has created and the explanation about soul mates given in this book, I can completely understand it and it makes sense to me.
The ending left me gobsmacked and I cannot wait to get my hands on book two! Jan 24, BookHookup rated it really liked it. In the Bloodstone series we were introduced to Empusa, daughter of the goddess of witchcraft, Hecate. Due to a curse, she is forced to consume human souls and human blood to keep her immortality. Talk about family problems!
Em is living in hiding and only consuming souls and blood when she can no longer function without them. During one so In the Bloodstone series we were introduced to Empusa, daughter of the goddess of witchcraft, Hecate. And their journey to discover how to get the curse removed and save Em from her terrible fate will also help him discover himself. And what a ride it is! First of all…how much do I love Brennan and his confident swagger…. I love that their relationship is dangerous, that she could kill him, that together they could destroy the world!!
And I loved the fact that the characters I enjoyed in the Bloodstone Saga make an appearance here as well. In truth, I was a bit worried at the beginning when it seemed that the story was going to be more about their relationship than anything else. As usual, however, I needed not have been concerned because out of left field came her father, the twists and turns, the mysteries and the betrayals! As always, the mix of mythology and history…with a twist…is absolutely perfect.
And the end…. What will happen next?!? A new adventure that for readers of the Bloodstone Saga will feel different yet, somehow, feel just like coming home! I am a lucky lucky girl to have recieved this ARC in exchange for my honest review. In the last series we are introduced to the character Empusa, daughter of the the goddess of witchcraft, Hecate.
Due to a curse laid upon her by her father, she is forced to consume human souls and human blood to kee I am a lucky lucky girl to have recieved this ARC in exchange for my honest review. Due to a curse laid upon her by her father, she is forced to consume human souls and human blood to keep her immortality. In addition to this, she must also keep hidden from her evil father, who would destroy her utterly if he found her. She holds no realy hope of ever eluding her curse.
Until one day she meets Brennan, who is the nephew of a sick man who Em had just recently fed on. As soon as they touch they discover that they have a deep soul connection; they are electrified by each others touch and cannot bear to be apart. As they grow closer, Empusa learns that there is more to Brennan that meets the eye, and that there are even more hidden secrets about her curse I really really loved this book. Courtney Cole is one of the rare, gifted authors that can write about soul mates and true love without it feeling fake, forced, or corny.
Is there anything more romantic than the thought of finding your soul mate? I doubt it! The connection between Empusa and Brennan is nothing short of exhilirating. It was great to watch their love unfold. I also enjoyed all the mythology that flowed through this book. Part of Empusa's journey involves her traveling to Poseidon's underwater kingdom and it was really awesome to see that described in vivid detail and to learn more about Poseidon's character even if he turned out to be a bit of a prick ;. Ah,the ending left me craving so much more of these characters and this story!
It was just so good! I can't wait to find out what happends next! This is a fantastic first book in a great new series! Oct 30, Savannah Books With Bite rated it really liked it. Another fabulous debut, Soul Kissed made is great! What I loved most about this book is the banging plot.
If you love greek mythology and are up for an awesome twist read this story! I loved reading each chapter, getting to know more of the back round story as well as see the characters developed. Being able to step into the characters shoes and feel the emotions, the rush of adrenaline when it comes to searching out clues is awesome. Power play is a manger part of the book that left me speechles Another fabulous debut, Soul Kissed made is great! Power play is a manger part of the book that left me speechless left and right. Whatever happen to doing something for someone without wanting or needing something in return?
That's what you get when you mess with the gods. Of course the love interest is entertaining as well as tiring. As much as I enjoyed them together, I really dislike the back and forth thing. I couldn't help but want to slap both of them and remind them that two is better than one. I mean, if you going down, you might as well go down with a fight right? Soul Kissed is a great start in an awesome series! It lead me to places that I never been before and kindly whipped my emotions back and forth.
A strong plot that directs much action along with secrets is divine. A beautifully driven plot with much to offer, Soul Kissed is great! Apr 06, Kimberly Schaaf rated it it was amazing Shelves: awesomesauce This is by far one of my most favorites so far Courtney Cole is amazingly talented which I quickly found out during the Bloodstone Saga. Her take on Empusa is amazing I can't wait to se where her and Brennan end up in Soul Bound!!!
Apr 04, Marie rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites , must-haves , worth-a-look , best-series-ever , best-covers , 5-stars , favourite-series , magic , immortals , witches. Love the cover! Brilliant book, couldn't have asked for better. Thoroughly enjoyed it- way better than expected that's for sure. Don't underestimate this book, it will pull you in. I didn't put it down between when I started it until when I finished it. Book 2 here I come! Mar 02, Monica rated it really liked it Shelves: I love this book so far amazing i love Ems character and Brennan's humor for that matter.
So when does Soul Bound come out??? I love that mythology was such a big component to this story And the way Hades was described Mar 10, Louise Walsh rated it really liked it. Apr 14, FicTalk Blog rated it it was amazing Shelves: reviewed-in I had no doubt that I would enjoy the first book in the Moonstone Saga. In reality, I did more than enjoy it. I loved Soul Kissed. At the end of Bloodstone Saga, we start to become better acquainted with Empusa Em, for short and begin to learn a little of her back story. Em is the daughter of Hecate, the goddess of witchcraft.
I have to say, first off, it was quite a switch from Harmonia to Em. After spending so much time with Harmonia, I was used to her methods of thinking and had grown accustomed to slowly seeing how the past was unveiled through her eyes. A fleeting touch later, and craziness happens and Em flees, determined to put as much distance between herself and Brennan, but of course, fate has other plans.
I mean, she can really pull it off. She proved that time and time again with Harmonia and Cadmus. Along with our main characters, the secondary ones are equally complex. We get to see Harmonia and Cadmus once more, and their appearance in Soul Kissed is like a breath of fresh air. Harmonia is the goddess of peace, and the way that Cole writes her makes that completely tangible. And in others, my heart races while a battle plays out on the pages in front of me. And then, Harmonia appears and everything is calm. Plot wise, Soul Kissed is a totally different type of book that the Bloodstone Saga was.
Outside of the romance, the family drama between Em, her parents, Hades, the pretty creepy Poseidon, is enough to keep any reader on the edge of their seat. And I love a great story with a nice balance of darkness and hope. If you love a great story based on ancient myths, this is so worth picking up.
Cole is an amazing writer. Her characters are deep, with multiple facets to their personalities and a host of motivations driving them to do the things they do. Awesome I love the characters and how each one was different. I just couldn't out it down. U long for the two main characters to be together even if something could happen from it.
Can't wait to read the second one. Jan 01, Ana rated it really liked it. Feb 16, Shari rated it it was amazing. I was both honoured and fortunate to have received not only an ARC but also a few glimpses into this book during it's early stages in Ms Cole's writing process. After just a few highly teasing chapters I knew I would love what was yet to come.
I couldn't wait to dive in when I was forwarded an ARC and it was every bit as fantastic as I'd hoped.
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Thank you once again Courtney for the honour of being a beta reader for you. I admit and as Ms Cole knows , at first I was a bit Let me tell you - she thoroughly succeeded. She most successfully gives Bloodstone fans tasty glimpses and happily ever after moments of their most beloved characters And from there, you want more.
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